Gabriel Kron and the Negative Resistor
At the time of his death, Gabriel Kron was considered by some the greatest "non-linear" scientist ever produced by the United States.
A negative resistor is defined as any component or function or process that receives energy in unusable or disordered form and outputs that energy in usable, ordered form, where that is the net function performed. We specifically do not include "differential" negative resistors such as the tunnel diode, thyristor, and magnetron which dissipate and disorder more energy overall than they order in their "negative resistance" regimes.
It appears that the availability of the Heaviside energy component surrounding any portion of the circuit may be the long sought secret to Gabriel Kron’s "open path" that enabled him to produce a true negative resistor in the 1930s, as the chief scientist for General Electric on the U.S. Navy contract for the Network Analyzer at Stanford University. Kron was never permitted to release how he made his negative resistor, but did state that, when placed in the Network Analyzer, the generator could be disconnected because the negative resistor would power the circuit. This negative resistor, one might add, was developed at the expense of the U.S. Taxpayer.
Since a negative resistor converges surrounding energy and diverges it into the circuit, it appears that Kron’s negative resistor gathered energy from the Heaviside component of energy flow as an "open path" flow of energy — connecting together the local vicinities of any two separated circuit components — that had been discarded by previous electrodynamicists following Lorentz. Hence Kron referred to it as the "open path." Kron describes this as follows: "...the missing concept of "open-paths" (the dual of "closed-paths") was discovered, in which currents could be made to flow in branches that lie between any set of two nodes. (Previously — following Maxwell — engineers tied all of their open-paths to a single datum point, the ‘ground’). That discovery of open-paths established a second rectangular transformation matrix... which created ‘lamellar’ currents..." "A network with the simultaneous presence of both closed and open paths was the answer to the author’s years-long search."
A true negative resistor appears to have been developed by Kron. He described his apparent success in 1945 stating: "When only positive and negative real numbers exist, it is customary to replace a positive resistance by an inductance and a negative resistance by a capacitor (since none or only a few negative resistances exist on practical network analyzers)." Apparently Kron was required to insert the words "none or" in that statement. He also wrote that: "Although negative resistances are available for use with a network analyzer,…" suggesting in rather certain terms that negative resistors were available for use on the network analyzer.
University of Moscow Scientists tested Overunity devices in 1930s
In the 1930s Russian scientists (Mandelstam et al.) at the University of Moscow and supporting agencies developed and tested parametric oscillator generators exhibiting COP > 1.0. The theory, results, pictures, etc. are in both the Russian and French literature, with many references cited in this particular translation. Apparently the work was never resurrected after WW II.
Other pertinent Russian references include:
Mandelstam, L.I.; and N.D. Papaleksi, "On the parametric excitation of electric oscillations," Zhurnal Teknicheskoy Fiziki, 4(1), 1934, p. 5-29
Mandelstam, L. and N. Papalexi, "On resonance phenomena with frequency distribution," Z.f. Phys., No. 72, 1931, p. 223
"Concerning asynchronous excitation of oscillations," Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki, 4(1), 1934, p. TBD
"Concerning asynchronous excitation of oscillations," Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki, 4(1), 1934
"Concerning nonstationary processes occurring in the case of resonance phenomena of the second class," Zhurnal Tekhnicheskoi Fiziki, 4(1), 1934
Andronov, A. "The limiting cycles of Poincare and the theory of self-maintained oscillations," Comptes-Rendus, Vol. 189, 1929, p. 559.
and A. Witt, "On the mathematical theory of self-excitations," Comptes-Rendus, Vol. 190, 1930, p. 256
"On the mathematical theory of self-excitation systems with two degrees of freedom," Zhurnal Tekhnicheskioi Fiziki, 4(1), 1934
"Discontinuous periodic movements and theory of multivibrators of Abraham and Bloch," Bull. De l’Acad. Ed Sc. De l"URSS, vol. 189, 1930.
Chaikin, S., "Continuous and ‘discontinuous’ oscillations," Zhurnal Prikladnoi Fiziki, Vol. 7, 1930, p. 6.
and A. Witt, , "Drift in a case of small amplitudes," Zhurnal Teknicheskoi Fiziki, 1(5), 1931, p. 428.
and N. Kaidanowski, "Mechanical relaxation oscillations," Zhurnal Teknicheskoi Fiziki, Vol. 3, 1933, p. 1.
The Original Point-Contact Transistor
The original point-contact transistor often behaved in true negative resistor fashion, but was never understood. The point-contact transistor was simply bypassed by advancing to other transistor types more easily manufactured and with less manufacturing variances. Point-contact transistors can easily be developed into true negative resistors enabling COP> 1.0 circuits.
Burford and Verner (p.281) state that: "…the theory underlying their function is imperfectly understood even after almost a century… although the very nature of these units limits them to small power capabilities, the concept of small-signal behavior, in the sense of the term when applied to junction devices, is meaningless, since there is no region of operation wherein equilibrium or theoretical performance is observed. Point-contact devices may therefore be described as sharply nonlinear under all operating conditions."
Dr. Deborah Chung’s Negative Resistor
Dr. Deborah D. L. Chung, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at University at Buffalo (UB), is the leading "smart materials" scientist in this country, and a scientist of international reputation. She holds the Niagara Mohawk Chair in Materials Research at UB and is internationally recognized for her work in smart materials and carbon composites. On July 9, 1998 in a keynote address at the Fifth International Conference on Composites Engineering in Las Vegas, she reported having observed apparent negative resistance in interfaces between layers of carbon fibers in a composite material. The negative resistance was observed in a direction perpendicular to the fiber layers.
Her team tested the negative resistance effect thoroughly, for a year in the laboratory. There is no question at all about it being a true negative resistor. Dr. Chung submitted a paper describing the research to a peer-reviewed journal, and the University filed a patent application. Several negative articles appeared quickly in the popular scientific press. Conventional scientists were quickly quoted as proclaiming that negative resistance was against the laws of physics and thermodynamics. Others thought perhaps the UB researchers had made a little battery and were unaware of it.
On the web site for the University of Buffalo, it was announced that the invention would be offered for commercial licensing. A Technical Data Package was available for major companies interested in licensing and signing the proper non-disclosure agreements. Shortly thereafter this was no longer true, the data package was no longer available, and there was an indefinite hold on licensing and commercialization. It is still on hold as of this writing.
Sources for the above 4 sections: http://www.bibliotec...isclosure18.htm
Also I wanted to bring up the Bedini-Lindemann Conference of 2011. Bedini had a wheel there and invited the entire audience to put their hands around the large coil beneath it. It was running cold, and I felt this personally! And this wasn't from some sort of ionic wind, the cold was emanating from inside the coil/windings, this seemed like genuine cold electricity. I still to this day am mystified as to how that was accomplished but it seems like full out negative resistance.
Bedini in his standard crytpic way explained it as something along the lines of "splitting the dipole". He did this with a capacitor and another smaller coil that ran hot while the big coil ran cold. His explanation was something along the lines of splitting apart ordered and disordered energy. Curious if anyone else felt it or knows what this thing is called and how it works?
Attached pictures are the bottom of the above contraption. Large coil and circuitry.
Another question I had was is there a difference between negative resistance and the inductive parametric variation energy synthesis phenomena? Or are they the same thing....just two different names?